In the academic world, data visualization is broken into three main categories: Information Visualization (InfoVis), Visual Analytics, and Scientific Visualization (SciVis).
InfoVis deals with smaller datasets, typically demographic or financial data.
Visual analytics involves a cycle of rapidly creating visualizations to answer and generate new questions about a dataset.
Infographics are typically in the realm of InfoVis, and often they show the results of the visual analytics process, but SciVis is not really a part of most infographics.
SciVis is interesting because it deals with really large quantities of data that often has a spatial and/or temporal component. These are cool qualities to have in a dataset because they sometimes allow for the appropriate use of 3D visualization techniques. With the huge quantities of data involved, this often leads to extremely beautiful results that often look as if they are photographs or pieces of art.
In many cases, they actually... keep reading